In 1975, Edward Tronick and colleagues first presented the “still face experiment” to colleagues at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. He described a phenomenon in which an infant, after three minutes of “interaction” with a non-responsive expressionless mother, “rapidly sobers and grows wary. He makes repeated attempts to get the interaction into its usual reciprocal pattern. When these attempts fail, the infant withdraws [and] orients his face and body away from his mother with a withdrawn, hopeless facial expression.” It remains one of the most replicated findings in developmental psychology
Once the phenomenon had been thoroughly tested and replicated, it became a standard method for testing hypotheses about person perception, communication differences as a result of gender or cultural differences, individual differences in attachment style, and the effects of maternal depression on infants.
The still-face experiment has also been used to investigate cross-cultural differences, and children of parents with various psychopathologies, especially depression.
The still face experiment demonstrated that very young infants already have several basic building blocks of social cognition in place. It suggested that they have some sense of the relationship between facial expression and emotion, that they have some primitive social understanding, and that they are able to regulate their own affect and attention to some extent. The infants’ attempts to re-engage with their caregivers also suggest that they are able to plan and execute simple goal-directed behaviors.
Concern over the mistreatment of older people has been heightened by the realization that in the coming decades,
in both developed and developing countries, there will be a dramatic increase in the population in the older age segment.
It is generally agreed that abuse of older people is either an act of commission or of omission (neglect),
and that it may be either intentional or unintentional.
The abuse may be of a physical nature, it may be psychological or it may involve financial or other material maltreatment.
Regardless of the type of abuse, it will certainly result in unnecessary suffering, injury or pain, the loss or violation of human rights,
and a decreased quality of life for the older person.